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Can we, as adults, stretch brand-new gut cadres? There’s still some confusionabout that question, as this is a somewhat brand-new realm of studies. For sample, I was talkingto one of my colleagues, Robert, who is an oncologist, and he was telling me, “Sandrine, this is puzzling. Some of my patients that have been toldthey are medication of their cancer still develop manifestations of depression.” And I is in response to him, “Well, from my point of viewthat establishes appreciation. The pharmaceutical you give to your patientsthat stops the cancer cadres proliferating also stops the newborn neuronsbeing produced in their brain.” And then Robert looked at melike I was crazy and said, “But Sandrine, these are adult cases — adults do not grow brand-new gut cells.” And much to his surprise, I said, “Well actually, we do.” And this is a phenomenonthat we call neurogenesis .[ Neurogenesis] Now Robert is not a neuroscientist, and when he went to medical schoolhe was not taught what we know now — that the adult braincan make brand-new nerve cadres. So Robert, you know, being the good doctor that he is, wanted to come to my lab to understand the topica little bit better. And I made him for a tour of one of the most excitingparts of the mentality when it comes to neurogenesis — and this is the hippocampus. So this is this gray structurein the center of the brain. And what we’ve known alreadyfor longer and longer, is that this is important for learning, remember, humor and sensation. Nonetheless, what wehave learned more recently is that this is one of the uniquestructures of the adult brain where brand-new neurons can be generated. And if we slice through the hippocampus and zoom in, what you actually see here in off-color is a newborn neuronin an adult mouse brain.So when it comes to the human brain — my colleague Jonas Frisnfrom the Karolinska Institutet, has been calculated that we produce7 00 new neurons per epoch in the hippocampus. You might think this is not much, in comparison with the billionsof neurons we have. But by the time we turn 50, we will have all exchanged the neuronswe were born with in that structure with adult-born neurons. So why are these new neurons importantand what are their functions? First, we know that they’re importantfor learning and memory. And in the lab we have shown that if we block the abilityof the adult brain to produce new neurons in the hippocampus, then we block particular remembrance abilities.And this is especially brand-new and truefor spatial approval — so like, how you navigateyour highway in the city. We are still learning a lot, and neurons are not only importantfor retention capability, but also for the high quality of the reminiscence. And they will have been helpfulto add time to our recognition and they will help differentiatevery similar reminiscences, like: how do you find your bicycle that you park at the stationevery day in the same area, but in a slightly different position? And more interestingto my colleague Robert is the research we have been doingon neurogenesis and depression. So in an animal model of dimple, we have seen that we havea lower level of neurogenesis. And if we give antidepressants, then we increase the productionof these newborn neurons, and we decreasethe symptoms of dimple, launching a clearly defined linkbetween neurogenesis and depression. But furthermore, if youjust block neurogenesis, then you block the efficacyof the antidepressant.So by then, Robert had understood that very likely his patientswere suffering from depression even after being dried of their cancer, because the cancer drug had stoppednewborn neurons from being generated. And it will take timeto generate brand-new neurons that reach normal offices. So, collectively , now we thinkwe have enough evidence to say that neurogenesisis a target of choice if we want to improvememory formation or attitude, or even prevent the declineassociated with aging, or associated with stress. So the next question is: can we control neurogenesis? The refute is yes. And we are now going to do a little quiz. I’m going to give you a setof demeanors and activities, and you tell me if you thinkthey will increase neurogenesis or if they will decrease neurogenesis. Are we ready? OK, let’s go. So what about learning? Increasing? Yes. Learning will increase the productionof these new neurons. How about stress? Yes, stress will be increased the productionof new neurons in the hippocampus. How about sleep destitution? Indeed, it will decrease neurogenesis. How about fornication? Oh, wow!( Laughter) Yes, you are right, it will increasethe production of brand-new neurons.However, it’s all about symmetry now. We don’t want to fall in a situation –( Laughter) about too much sexleading to sleep hardship.( Laughter) How about getting older? So the neurogenesis ratewill decrease as we get older, but it is still occurring. And then finally, how about leading? I will let you judge that one by yourself. So “thats one” of the first studies that was carried out by one of my mentors, Rusty Gage from the Salk Institute, showing that the environmentcan have an impact on the production of new neurons.And here you experience a sectionof the hippocampus of a mouse that “havent had” rolling pedal in its enclosure. And the little color scatters you seeare actually newborn neurons-to-be. And now, you accompany a sectionof the hippocampus of a mouse that had a leading rotate in its enclose. So you read the massive increase further the black scatters representingthe brand-new neurons-to-be. So work impacts neurogenesis, but that’s not all. What you eat will have an effect on the production of new neuronsin the hippocampus. So now we have a sample of diet — of nutrients that have been shownto have efficacy. And I’m just goingto point a few out to you: Calorie restriction of 20 to 30 percentwill increase neurogenesis. Intermittent fasting –spacing the time between your snacks — will increase neurogenesis. Intake of flavonoids, which are containedin dark chocolate or blueberries, will increase neurogenesis. Omega-3 fatty acids, present in fatty fish, like salmon, will increase the productionof these brand-new neurons.Conversely, a food richin high-pitched saturated fat will have a negative impacton neurogenesis. Ethanol — intake of alcohol –will decrease neurogenesis. However , not everything is lost; resveratrol, which iscontained in red wine, has been shown to promotethe survival of these brand-new neurons. So next time you are at a dinner party, you might want to reach for this possibly”neurogenesis-neutral” imbibe.( Laughter) And then finally, let me point out the last one — a quaint one. So Japanese radicals are fascinatedwith meat compositions, and they have shown that actuallysoft diet diminishes neurogenesis, as opposed to food that requiresmastication — chewing — or crunchy food.So all of this data, where we need to lookat the cellular statu, has been generated abusing animal prototypes. But this nutrition has also been givento human members, and what we could see is thatthe diet modulates remember and mood in the same directionas it modulates neurogenesis, such as: calorie restrictionwill improve memory capacity, whereas a high-fat diet will exacerbatesymptoms of hollow — as opposed to omega-3 fatty acids, which increase neurogenesis, and also help to decreasethe evidences of recession. So we think that the effect of diet on mental health, on remember and feeling, is actually liaised by the productionof the brand-new neurons in the hippocampus. And it’s not only what you ingested, but it’s also the textureof the food, when you eat it and how much of it you munch. On our place — neuroscientistsinterested in neurogenesis — we need to understand betterthe function of these brand-new neurons, and how we can control their survivaland their production.We too need to find a way to protectthe neurogenesis of Robert’s patients. And on your slope — I leave you in chargeof your neurogenesis. Thank you.( Applause) Margaret Heffernan: Incredible study, Sandrine. Now, I told you you changed my life — I now snack a lot of blueberries. Sandrine Thuret: Very good. MH: I’m really interestedin the running thing.Do I got to run? Or is it truly justabout aerobic employ, going oxygen to the brain? Could it be any kind of robust employ? ST: So for the moment, we can’t really sayif it’s just the running itself, but we think that anything that indeedwill increase the product — or moving the blood overflow to the brain, should be beneficial. MH: So I don’t have to geta leading pedal in my bureau? ST: No, you don’t! MH: Oh, what a aid! That’s wonderful. Sandrine Thuret, thank you so much.ST: Thank you, Margaret.( Applause ).