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( upbeat music) – Hi, I’m Susan Taylor with Scripps Health in San Diego, California. There’s a lot of foods outthere to help you lose weight. We’re gonna talk about the Keto diet, and the Paleo diet. Joining us is Dr. Samantha Harris. She is an endocrinologist who specializes in weight management at Scripps Clinic inSan Diego, California. Dr. Harris, thanks somuch for “ve been with” us. – Thank you for having me, Susan. – So what is the keto diet? – So the keto diet sort of differs in terms of definition, but it’s essentially an gobbling intention low enough in carbohydrates that beings start usingfat for gasoline and intensity as opposed to carbohydrates. – What is ketosis? – So when people are eatinglow enough in carbohydrates, they can enter the district of ketosis. Or even if they’re not eating, they can enter the stateof nutritional ketosis. And that is where the body actually relies on the outage of overweight, and the byproducts ofthis, which is ketones, for force as opposed tousing carbohydrates for fuel.- So how do you know that you’ve enrolled that commonwealth of ketosis? – Well there are a lot of ways to tell. There are mechanisms out therethat can test your breath, that can check your blood, that can even check your urine. But most people are able to tell. A spate of times they might feel thirstier, they might be urinating more frequently, even lose a few pounds quite quickly in the first few days. It can also justification a change in taste, like a metal appetite in the mouth, or a change in your breath.It can effect your gut, sometimes motiving a little bit of nausea, a decrease in appetite, more energy. Sometimes difficulty sleeping as well, especially in the beginning. – Talk about intermittent fasting and its effect on ketosis. – Yes, so intermittent fasting comes in a variety of different forms. The most common beingtime-restricted eating, where most people will eatfor an eight hour period of time during the day, and then fast for 16 hours, until the next day, and continue that hertz. During periods of fasting, specially while not eating anything, and we’re not eating carbohydrates, our organization genuinely has to turnto an alternative fuel source, which is fat. So it breaks down fat, which can lead to more ketones as a source of gasoline and energy since we’re not really dining, and don’t have that immediatesource of carbohydrates. – What nutrients can you eat on this nutrition? – That genuinely can varybased on which keto design somebody is following, but virtually animal protein is extremely low in carbohydrates.Most overweight informants are alsolow in carbohydrates. So things like beef, chicken, fish, eggs, the resources of fatty like certain petroleums, mayonnaise, some cheese, and then veggies as well. Some proposes tolerate other meat such as nuts and outcome, but it certainly depends howstrict of a low-pitched carb strategy somebody is following. – And what nutrients do youneed to avoid on this nutrition? – Yeah, so anything that isreally high in carbohydrates. So simple sugars, managed sugars, things like juice, starches, food, potatoes, corn, rice, even fruit canbe very high in carbohydrates and sugars, will vary depending on the fruit category, so a lot of people arelimiting those as well. – What kind of return wouldyou limit on this diet? – So usually the fruitsthat are higher in sugar include the tropical results, so things like pineapple, grapes, bananas, mangoes, papaya.And things that are lower in carbohydrates are usually berries such as blueberries, raspberries and strawberries. – How long do you stay on this diet? – Well, the truth is anytime somebody does a nutrition, it certainly should be an eating plan that is a permanent solution because any time someone doesa temporary change in eating and eventually goes back to eating the route they were beforehand, they run the risk of recapturing the heavines that they had lost. So in general I onlyrecommend people follow any type of eating plan, whether it’s keto, paleo or otherwise, if they’re really committed to it pretty much forever. – Who’s a good candidate for this diet, and who should avoid this diet? – So a good candidatefor a keto eating plan would be somebody who is very motivated, experiences the menu in the program, and wants to do it forever. Because really it’s a longterm solution and not a short term plan. The parties I usuallyrecommend not following it are people who cannot eat protein, for example if they haveadvanced kidney problems, women who are pregnant or nursing actually should not be inthe state of ketosis.It potentially has some consequences on the developing fetus or on the harbour child. Anyone with a record of eating disorder, binge eating disorder, anorexia. Cutting out carbohydrates can deteriorate the cycle and move eatingdisorders worse in the long run. – All right so let’s talkabout the paleo nutrition, also affectionately knownas the caveman food. – Yes. So this was a very populardiet a few years back, but a good deal of people are still, are following this eating plan. And basically it’s sortof going back to the basics as we would imagine our ancestors years ago would have eaten. And this is actually be entire foods, unprocessed foods. Avoiding thing such as dairyand grains, extremely. So it really focuses on protein, especially lean proteinsuch as fish, chicken, eggs, veggies, results, things like nuts.Even beginning vegetablesand things like casaba. – And what about meat? – So flesh uptake on a paleo contrive is permissible, but generally leaner cutsof meat are preferred. I usually recommendgrass fed meats as well as opposed to grain fed meats, but it sort of depends onyour level of carbohydrates because if you’re eating meat that are higher incarbohydrates like fruit, carrots, more starchy sort vegetables, you really don’t wanna be eatingvery high solid menus as well because the conjunction of high solid and high carbohydrate nutrients together can be problemsome.- So who is a goodcandidate for this food? – So a good nominee for a paleo mean would be somebody who enjoysthe meat in the intention, wants to continue it indefinitely, at least a majority of the time. Because, like I said, anything that’s considered temporary and eventually goingback to old eating wonts generally result in weight regain. – And what are the healthbenefits of this diet? – So the health benefits of eating meat that are whole, natural, high in vegetables, low-toned in carbohydrate are numerous. One, they can help promote weight loss. And actually I’m sitting in my clinic where I have a sampleof a five-pound fat mass that I sometimes present patients who feel like five poundsisn’t a lot of weight loss, and it really is a lot, and it can be helpful to see a visual performance of what the actual areaand loudnes looks like. But weight loss if a benefit of both keto proposes and paleo hopes. Genuinely, any nutrition that’seliminating calories and easy to stick to can help people lose weight.When beings lose weight, their general healthand well being improves. They lower their risk of cancer, high blood pressure, myocardial infarction, diabetes, sadnes, sleep apnea, dementia. It goes on and on. – And what about the pegan diet, which is a combination of paleo and vegan? – I’ve heard of this plan, I haven’t yet seen thatmany parties following it. It seems to be essentiallya paleo type plan with a focus on plant located menu. So certainly instead of doing more lean fleshes with the vegetables and fruit, having 75% of daily food intake coming from fruits and veggies, and merely a small amount coming from meat.So more of a plant-based paleo, but still eliminating nuts and starches, carbohydrate, dairy meat, and speck makes such as wheat or bread. – And what’s the benefitof this pegan diet? – Essentially same benefits to paleo or keto typeplan with weight loss, but there is evidence that focusing on more plant-based nutrients might also help in termsof cardiovascular threat. So there is a lot of debate out there. I don’t think anyone can argue that eating a lot of veggies and whole nutrients and avoidingprocessed refined nutrient isn’t good for your state. – Any final judges, physician? – I would just say, and to remind people thatany type of eating plan really depends on yourpersonal likings, what you enjoy eating, what you think you couldcontinue in the long run because it shouldn’t be temporary fix.The data has shown that short term diets frequently fail in the long term because people will regressto their prior devouring garbs. So obviously think about something that’s simple, that’s safe, but most importantly sustainable for you that can be continued really indefinitely. – Thanks so much, Dr. Harris, I certainly applauded the fact. Want more information on these diets? Please click on the link or go to Scripps.org/ videos. Want more criticalinformation about your state? Please subscribe to ourScripps Health YouTube channel and follow us on socialmedia at Scripps Health. I’m Susan Taylor, thanks for joining us.( upbeat music ).