Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet Improved Body Composition, Gut Microbiota Profile in T2D

Different dietary approaches were able to improve the state of health in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), with very-low-calorie ketogenic diets demonstrating better results on gut microbiota profile.

Gut microbiota (GM) profile was affected by dietary approaches, namely a very-low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD), in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), according to a new study published in Metabolites. The benefit to this diet appeared to be higher than a classical Mediterranean diet for weight loss and impact on GM.

GM has been found to be a primary factor in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and T2D. Different diets have been identified as ways to modulate GM composition. Specifically, the Mediterranean diet and the VLCKD have been effective in patients who are overweight or obese and have T2D. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the short-term effects on GM using 2 dietary models, the Mediterranean diet and VLCKD, in patients with newly diagnosed T2D.

Study participants were outpatients of the Obesity Unit of the AOU of Cagliari and the Diabetology Unit of the PO Binaghi in Cagliari, Italy, from March to May of 2020. Patients were included if they had a new diagnosis of T2D, a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) value of 6.5% to 8.9%, and were drug naïve for T2D.

Patients were excluded if they had type 1 diabetes; serious heart disease; severe or uncontrolled hypertension; severe or uncompensated kidney, liver, or thyroid disease; painful pathologies; tumors being treated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy; sever psychopathology; gastrointestinal disease; therapy with corticosteroids; proton pump inhibitors; prebiotic or probiotic intake; or any dietary supplements or participation in other dietary regimens within 3 months of the sample collection.

Baseline evaluations (T0) were performed 3 months after baseline assessment (T3) for a comparison. Nutritional intervention took place over the first (T1) and second (T2) months to evaluate adherence to the nutritional program.

Clinical examinations included a full medical history, physical examination, standard blood pressure and heart rate measurement, and a quality of life assessment.

There were 2 study…

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